Mathematics - Course 1 Bailey, et al. Mathematics - Course 2 Bailey, et al. Mathematics - Course 3 Bailey, et al. Mathematics - Grade 6 Bennet, et al. Mathematics - Grade 7 Bennet, et al. Mathematics - Grade 8 Bennet, et al.
Mathematics - Course 1 Bennet, et al. Mathematics - Course 2 Bennet, et al. Mathematics - Course 3 Bennet, et al. Pre-Algebra Bennet, et al. Prealgebra Larson, et al. Math - Course 1 Larson, et al. Math - Course 2 Larson, et al.
Math - Course 3 Larson, et al. Pre-Algebra Larson, et al. Passport to Mathematics - Book 1 Larson, et al. Passport to Mathematics - Book 2 Larson, et al.
Passport to Mathematics - Book 3 Larson, et al. Mathematics - Course 2 Dolciani, et al. Math - Course 1 Hake Math - Course 2 Hake Math - Course 3 Hake Math Makes Sense 7 Morrow, et al.
Math Makes Sense 6 Morrow, et al. Algebra 1 Carter, et al. Algebra 1 Holliday, et al. Algebra - Concepts and Applications Cummins, et al. Math Power 9 Knill, et al. Algebra 1 Burger, et al. Algebra 1 Larson, et al. Algebra 1 - Concepts and Skills Larson, et al. Algebra - Structure and Method Brown, et al. Algebra 1 Charles, et al. Algebra 1 Wang Algebra 1 Bellman, et al. Algebra 1 Smith, et al.
Algebra 1 Dressler Algebra 1 Saxon Even after being identified as learning disabled LD , few children are provided substantive assessment and remediation of their arithmetic difficulties. This relative neglect might lead parents and teachers to believe that arithmetic learning problems are not very common, or perhaps not very serious.
This does not mean that all reading disabilities are accompanied by arithmetic learning problems, but it does mean that math deficits are widespread and in need of equivalent attention and concern. Evidence from learning disabled adults belies the social myth that it is okay to be rotten at math. The effects of math failure throughout years of schooling, coupled with math illiteracy in adult life, can seriously handicap both daily living and vocational prospects.
There is also evidence that children manifest different types of disabilities in math. Unfortunately, research attempting to classify these has yet to be validated or widely accepted, so caution is required when considering descriptions of differing degrees of math disability.
Still, it seems evident that students do experience not only differing intensities of math dilemmas, but also different types, which require diverse classroom emphases, adaptations and sometimes even divergent methods. Many learning disabled students have persistent trouble "memorizing" basic number facts in all four operations, despite adequate understanding and great effort expended trying to do so.
For some, this represents their only notable math learning difficulty and, in such cases, it is crucial not to hold them back "until they know their facts. As the students demonstrate speed and reliability in knowing a number fact, it can be removed from a personal chart. Addition and multiplication charts also can be used for subtraction and division respectively. For specific use as a basic fact reference, a portable chart back-pocket-size, for older students is preferable to an electronic calculator.
Having the full set of answers in view is valuable, as is finding the same answer in the same location each time since where something is can help in recalling what it is. Also, by blackening over each fact that has been mastered, overreliance on the chart is discouraged and motivation to learn another one is increased.
Several curriculum materials offer specific methods to help teach mastering of basic arithmetic facts. This means that the student can readily show and explain what a problem means using objects, pencil marks, etc. Suggestions from these teaching approaches include:. Some learning disabled students have an excellent grasp of math concepts, but are inconsistent in calculating. They are reliably unreliable at paying attention to the operational sign, at borrowing or carrying appropriately, and at sequencing the steps in complex operations.
These same students also may experience difficulty mastering basic number facts. Interestingly, some of the students with these difficulties may be remedial math students during the elementary years when computational accuracy is heavily stressed, but can go on to join honors classes in higher math where their conceptual prowess is called for. Clearly, these students should not be tracked into low level secondary math classes where they will only continue to demonstrate these careless errors and inconsistent computational skills while being denied access to higher-level math of which they are capable.
Because there is much more to mathematics than right-answer reliable calculating, it is important to access the broad scope of math abilities and not judge intelligence or understanding by observing only weak lower level skills. Often a delicate balance must be struck in working with learning disabled math students which include:.
Many younger children who have difficulty with elementary math actually bring to school a strong foundation of informal math understanding. They encounter trouble in connecting this knowledge base to the more formal procedures, language, and symbolic notation system of school math. In fact, it is quite a complex feat to map the new world of written -math symbols onto the known world of quantities, actions and, at the same time to learn the peculiar language we use to talk about arithmetic.
Students need many repeated experiences and many varieties of concrete materials to make these connections strong and stable. Teachers often compound difficulties at this stage of learning by asking students to match pictured groups with number sentences before they have had sufficient experience relating varieties of physical representations with the various ways we string together math symbols, and the different ways we refer to these things in words. The fact that concrete materials can be moved, held, and physically grouped and separated makes them much more vivid teaching tools than pictorial representations.
Because pictures are semiabstract symbols, if introduced too early, they easily confuse the delicate connections being formed between existing concepts, the new language of math, and the formal world of written number problems. In this same regard, it is important to remember that structured concrete materials are beneficial at the concept development stage for math topics at all grade levels. There is research evidence that students who use concrete materials actually develop more precise and more comprehensive mental representations, often show more motivation and on-task behavior, may better understand mathematical ideas, and may better apply these to life situations.
Structured, concrete materials have been profitably used to develop concepts and to clarify early number relations, place value, computation, fractions, decimals, measurement, geometry, money, percentage, number bases story problems, probability and statistics , and even algebra.
Of course, different kinds of concrete materials are suited to different teaching purposes see appendix for selected listing of materials and distributors. Materials do not teach by themselves; they work together with teacher guidance and student interactions, as well as with repeated demonstrations and explanations by both teachers and students. In these formats, students learn to act as problem answerers rather than demonstrators of math ideas.
Students who show particular difficulty ordering math symbols in the conventional vertical, horizontal, and multi-step algorithms need much experience translating from one form to another.
For example, teachers can provide answered addition problems with a double box next to each for translating these into the two related subtraction problems. Teachers can also dictate problems with or without answers for students to translate into pictorial form, then vertical notation, then horizontal notation. It can be helpful to structure pages with boxes for each of these different forms. Students also can work in pairs translating answered problems into two or more different ways to read them e.
Or, again in pairs, students can be provided with answered problems each on an individual card; they alternate in their demonstration, or proof, of each example using materials e. To add zest, some of the problems can be answered incorrectly and a goal can be to find the "bad eggs.
Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze the effects of diction and imagery e. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of drama and provide evidence from text to support their understanding.
Students are expected to explain how dramatic conventions e. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding.
Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze how literary essays interweave personal examples and ideas with factual information to explain, present a perspective, or describe a situation or event. Students are expected to explain the role of irony, sarcasm, and paradox in literary works.
Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about expository text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding.
Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about persuasive text and provide evidence from text to support their analysis. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents.
Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students use elements of the writing process planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing to compose text.
Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are responsible for at least two forms of literary writing. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes.
Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write an argumentative essay to the appropriate audience that includes:. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing.
Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are expected to spell correctly, including using various resources to determine and check correct spellings. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather.
Students clarify research questions and evaluate and synthesize collected information. Students organize and present their ideas and information according to the purpose of the research and their audience. Students are expected to synthesize the research into a written or an oral presentation that:. Students will use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language.
Students are expected to give presentations using informal, formal, and technical language effectively to meet the needs of audience, purpose, and occasion, employing eye contact, speaking rate e. Students work productively with others in teams. Students are expected to participate productively in teams, building on the ideas of others, contributing relevant information, developing a plan for consensus-building, and setting ground rules for decision-making.
In English II, students will engage in activities that build on their prior knowledge and skills in order to strengthen their reading, writing, and oral language skills.
Students are expected to analyze the structure or prosody e. Students are expected to analyze how archetypes and motifs in drama affect the plot of plays. Students are expected to evaluate the role of syntax and diction and the effect of voice, tone, and imagery on a speech, literary essay, or other forms of literary nonfiction.
Students are expected to explain the function of symbolism, allegory, and allusions in literary works. Students are expected to analyze the controlling idea and specific purpose of a passage and the textual elements that support and elaborate it, including both the most important details and the less important details. Students are expected to advance a coherent argument that incorporates a clear thesis and a logical progression of valid evidence from reliable sources and that employs eye contact, speaking rate e.
In English III, students will engage in activities that build on their prior knowledge and skills in order to strengthen their reading, writing, and oral language skills. Students are expected to analyze the effects of metrics, rhyme schemes e. Students are expected to analyze the themes and characteristics in different periods of modern American drama. Students are expected to analyze how rhetorical techniques e. Students are expected to analyze the meaning of classical, mythological, and biblical allusions in words, phrases, passages, and literary works.
Students are expected to write an argumentative essay e. Students are expected to correctly and consistently use conventions of punctuation and capitalization.
Students are expected to synthesize the research into an extended written or oral presentation that:. Students are expected to give a formal presentation that exhibits a logical structure, smooth transitions, accurate evidence, well-chosen details, and rhetorical devices, and that employs eye contact, speaking rate e.
Students are expected to participate productively in teams, offering ideas or judgments that are purposeful in moving the team towards goals, asking relevant and insightful questions, tolerating a range of positions and ambiguity in decision-making, and evaluating the work of the group based on agreed-upon criteria.
In English IV, students will engage in activities that build on their prior knowledge and skills in order to strengthen their reading, writing, and oral language skills. Students are expected to evaluate the changes in sound, form, figurative language, graphics, and dramatic structure in poetry across literary time periods.
Students are expected to evaluate how the structure and elements of drama change in the works of British dramatists across literary periods. Students are expected to analyze the effect of ambiguity, contradiction, subtlety, paradox, irony, sarcasm, and overstatement in literary essays, speeches, and other forms of literary nonfiction.
Students are expected to formulate sound arguments by using elements of classical speeches e. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course.
The strands focus on academic oracy proficiency in oral expression and comprehension , authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas.
The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy. Strands include the four domains of language listening, speaking, reading, and writing and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency.
Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year.
Providing homework support can be challenging. Here are some suggestions for you to follow that will continue your child's education from the classroom to the home. Homework Support - Connected Mathematics Project.
Pre-K-8 elementary educational resources for teachers, students, connected math 2 homework help and parents Say It With Symbols: Fitzgerald, Susan N. Connected math 2 homework help out of 10 based on ratings.
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